Working groups
Regulations

For more information about this WG,

 

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The Working Group on Regulation is working on the following topics:

· As regards energy storage, the regulatory framework needs to provide clear rules and responsibilities concerning ownership, competition, technical modalities and financial conditions, for island and mainland cases

· In terms of smart grids, regulatory challenges arise regarding the incentives for demand-side response, commercial arrangements, cooperation with TSO and DSO, smart meter date, etc.

Chair:

Manuel Serrano (Grupo Etra), Helena Gerrard (VITO)

Documents of the WG:


Minutes of the TSO-DSO cooperation and Cybersecurity BRIDGE meetings – 23/10/19
Last October, the members of the Working Groups Regulation and Data Management were invited by the European Commission at Brussels to discuss about Cybersecurity and cooperation between TSOs and DSOs, two of the four topics initiated during the last General Assembly and studied by the two Working Groups in the past few months. Minutes of the two topic meetings are available here.
Friday. 22 November 2019

BRIDGE report on TSO-DSO coordination
The BRIDGE Data Management and Regulation Working Groups released their first joint report on the TSO-DSO coordination topic. Find out more here.
Tuesday. 07 January 2020

BRIDGE Regulations Working Group Findings and Recommendations
Short synthesis of the Regulations Working Group report Year 3 highlighting its main findings and recommendations
Friday. 19 July 2019

Projects participating in the WG:

FARCROSS

FARCROSS promotes state of the art technologies to enhance the exploitation/ capacity/ efficiency of transmission grid assets. The hardware and software solutions aim to increase grid observability to facilitate system operations at a regional level. FARCROSS considers cross-border connections, planning to use a wide-area protection approach to ensure the safe integration of renewable energy sources into the grid, mitigate disturbances and increase power system stability.

 

TRINITY

TRINITY enhances cooperation and coordination among the Transmission System Operators of SEE in order to support the integration of the electricity markets in the region, whilst promoting higher penetration of clean energies.

http://trinityh2020.eu/

SYNERGY

SYNERGY introduces a novel framework and reference big data architecture that leverages data, primary or secondarily related to the electricity domain.

https://www.synergyh2020.eu/

RENAISSANCE

RENAISSANCE aims at demonstrating highly replicable design and management approaches for integrated local energy systems, that achieve high participation of local consumers (15-20%), exceed at local level EU targets for renewable energy sources (37-80%) while decreasing the energy price for community members (10-15% below current market prices). The methodology and each of the pilots (Belgium, Greece, Spain and the Netherlands) will cover key energy vectors (electricity, heat, transport), involve different actors (households, SMEs, institutions), and valorise flexibility services within and between communities, and with DSOs.

https://www.renaissance-h2020.eu/

PLATOON

PLATOON develops a COSMAG Compliant reference Platform with flexible capabilities in (1) Interoperability, to deal with a wide spectrum and heterogenous data sources, formats, interfaces and enable data exchange between platforms, (2) Data Governance & Security to answer multiple data owners and providers, digital sovereignty challenges, (3) Data Analytics Toolbox and Edge Computing for data processing and analysis in batch and real time.

https://platoon-project.eu/

Platone

Platone aims at developing a layered set of platforms to meet the needs of system operators, aggregators and end users. A blockchain-based platform is the access layer to generators’ and customers’ flexibilities able to break traditional access barriers by providing certified measures to all the players. In conjunction, certified data and signals are used for an innovative DSO platform to locally maintain system integrity fostering confidence in flexibility operations. An upper layer implements a new concept of blockchain-based open market platform to link the local system to the TSO domains and enhance the overall system cost efficiency. The platforms are tested in three large pilots in Europe and analysed in cooperation with a large research initiative in Canada.

https://www.platone-h2020.eu

PARITY

PARITY project targets at developing Local Flexibility Markets & Smart Energy Grids through peer-to-peer and decentralized intelligence in a human-centric manner.

https://parity-h2020.eu/

NESOI

NESOI mainstreams green energy investments to EU islands to give them the opportunity to implement energy technologies and innovative approaches in a cost-competitive way. Starting with a broad survey gathering EU islands’ needs, NESOI develops transparent technical, social, economic and environmental criteria to select, via two competitive calls, energy transition projects for customised direct support. Selected islands benefits from specific project structuring Technical Assistance provided directly by NESOI’s professionals. It is supplemented by local contractors financed thanks to NESOI’s cascade mechanism. Moreover, other capacity building information and toolkits are provided via a digital platform and training workshops.

www.nesoi.eu

InterConnect

InterConnect proposes effective energy management using a resilient and practical ecosystem that is user-centric and market-driven. The project involves a range of specialised stakeholders, including advanced technology actors, manufacturers, providers and energy users. Via seven pilots, they will showcase an effective digital market for ensuring energy-efficiency at reduced costs that is beneficial to end-users.

https://interconnectproject.eu/

IElectrix

IElectrix contributes to the European ambition through Citizens Energy Communities. This project accelerates the integration of Renewable Energy Sources into the distribution networks and the decarbonization of the energy system.

www.ielectrix-h2020.eu

FLEXIGRID (864579)

FLEXIGRID improves the distribution grid operation making it more flexible, reliable and cost-efficient through the development of 8 solutions interoperable with the IT systems used by the energy stakeholders.

www.flexigrid-h2020.eu

FlexiGrid (864048)

FlexiGrid demonstrates cutting-edge technologies and innovative flexible markets enabled by advanced cross-platforms for local energy exchanges and providing flexibility to distribution system operators in order to ensure secure, stable and affordable operations of electrical distribution grids for de-carbonising energy systems with high shares of renewables (up to and above 100%). By leveraging digital, smart grid technologies, IoT, blockchain, FlexiGrid provides a transparent data management platform by broadcasting real-time information on the conditions of the network to optimize the observability of the grid and market functioning.

www.flexigrid.org

FEVER

FEVER aims at implementing and demonstrating solutions and services that leverage flexibility towards offering electricity grid services that address problems of the distribution grid, thus enabling it to function in a secure and resilient manner. The project encompasses technologies and techniques for extraction of energy flexibility from virtual and physical energy storage assets (batteries, V2G) and demand response. FEVER’s holistic approach to flexibility will facilitate establishing and operating appropriate business models for all players in the market, thereby providing the EU with a secure, efficient, and resilient electric grid.

https://www.fever-h2020.eu/

EnergyShield

EnergyShield captures the needs of Electrical Power and Energy System (EPES) operators and combines the latest technologies for vulnerability assessment, supervision and protection to draft a defensive toolkit. The toolkit combines the latest technologies for automated threat modelling and security behaviour analysis, anomaly detection and DDoS mitigation and security information and event management) The results will be validated and demonstrated in two locations: Italy (offline pilot) and Bulgaria.

www.energy-shield.eu 

ebalance-plus

ebalance-plus develops an energy management platform equipped with balancing and resilience services which increase and unlock the electric flexibility by means of generation and storage solutions, power electronics and grid control technologies, to provide ancillary services for new markets.

www.ebalanceplus.eu

BD4OPEM

BD4OPEM develops an open innovation marketplace where, through an analytic toolbox that integrates solutions based on artificial intelligence, products and services to improve the monitoring, operation, maintenance and planning of electrical distribution grids are made available to stakeholders.

www.bd4opem.eu

INTERRFACE

The INTERRFACE project will design, develop and exploit an Interoperable pan-European Grid Services Architecture (IEGSA) to act as the interface between the power system operators (TSO and DSO) and the customers and allow the coordinated operation of all stakeholders to use and procure common services.

http://www.interrface.eu/

CoordiNET

The purpose of CoordiNet is to establish different collaboration schemes between transmission system operators (TSOs), distribution system operators (DSOs) and consumers to contribute to the development of a smart, secure and more resilient energy system.

https://coordinet-project.eu/

GIFT

GIFT is an innovative project that aims to decarbonise the energy mix of European islands through holistic energy management, trading and innovative storage solutions.

https://www.gift-h2020.eu/

MUSE GRIDS

The objective of MUSEGRIDS is to demonstrate in two INSPIRING DEMOSITES a set of both technological and non-technological solutions towards local energy independency via the promotion of a SMART ENERGY SYSTEM.

www.muse-grids.eu/

MERLON

MERLON introduces an Integrated Modular Local Energy Management Framework for the Holistic Operational Optimisation of Local Energy Systems in presence of high shares of volatile distributed RES.

https://www.merlon-project.eu/

E-LAND

The E-LAND main objective is to tackle the challenges of connection to technology, society and economics of the evolving in the energy sector and support the decarbonisation of energy islands by developing an E-LAND Toolbox for Multi-Energy Islands including tools and methods for addressing the business, society and technology challenges.

https://elandh2020.eu

SMILE

The development of Smart grids are an important prerequisite for the transition towards a clean, affordable and reliable energy system.  Through Smart grids, peak demand can be reduced and the energy grid can be stabilized. Therefore, the development of market ready technologies that facilitate this transition are important. The Smart Islands Energy System (SMILE) project will demonstrate nine different smart grid technologies on three different islands. The end goal of the project is to foster the market introduction of these nine technologies.

http://www.h2020smile.eu/

EU-SysFlex

EU-SysFlex will make an important contribution in meeting the European Union (EU) world leading RES objectives. The results and later impacts of the project will be decisive for the cost-effective transformation of the electricity system, by enhancing the flexibility required, while maintaining the level of resilience that consumers and society expect from the European electricity system.

www.eu-sysflex.com

OSMOSE

OSMOSE proposes four TSO-led demonstrations (RTE, REE, TERNA and ELES) aiming at increasing the techno-economic potential of a wide range of flexibility solutions and covering several applications, i.e.: synchronisation of large power systems by multiservice hybrid storage; multiple services provided by the coordinated control of different storage and FACTS devices; multiple services provided by grid devices, large demand-response and RES generation coordinated in a smart management system; cross-border sharing of flexibility sources through a near real-time cross-border energy market.

https://www.osmose-h2020.eu/

FLEXITRANSTORE

FLEXITRANSTORE (An Integrated Platform for Increased FLEXIbility in smart TRANSmission grids with STORage Entities and large penetration of Renewable Energy Sources) aims to contribute to the evolution towards a pan-European transmission network with high flexibility and high interconnection levels. This will facilitate the transformation of the current energy production mix by hosting an increasing share of renewable energy sources. Novel smart grid technologies, control and storage methods and new market approaches will be developed, installed, demonstrated and tested introducing flexibility to the European power system.

http://www.flexitranstore.eu/

CROSSBOW

CROSSBOW (CROSS BOrder management of variable renewable energies and storage units enabling a transnational Wholesale market) is an EC funded project led by ETRA GROUP, whose goal is to propose the shared use of resources to foster cross-border management of variable renewable energies and storage units, enabling a higher penetration of clean energies whilst reducing network operational costs and improving economic benefits of clean energies and storage units.

http://crossbowproject.eu/

 

AnyPLACE

AnyPLACE is a European project that will develop a modular energy management system capable monitoring and  controlling local devices according to the preferences of end-users.

It will allow end-users to manage their energy expenditure and to become more efficient. Users will be able to take part in new energy services and take advantage of dynamic price tariffs to minimise their energy costs.

http://www.anyplace2020.org/

CryoHub

CRYOHUB is an EU-funded project to develop and investigate the potential of large scale cryogenic energy storage at refrigerated warehouses and food factories. The innovative CRYOHUB technology is based on storing renewable energy as a cryogenic liquid – which in the case of this project is liquid air.  This cryogen is then boiled at very low temperatures to generate electricity for on-site use or feeding the power grid during peak demand periods.  The cooling effect of boiling the cryogen is employed to refrigerate industrial facilities.

http://cryohub.eu/en-gb/

ELSA

The project Energy Local Storage Advanced system (ELSA) brings distributed storage solutions to maturity. Its objective is to enable their integration into the energy system and their commercial use.

ELSA addresses existing development needs by combining 2nd life batteries with an innovative local ICT-based Energy Management System in order to develop a low-cost, scalable and easy-to-deploy battery energy storage system.

http://elsa-h2020.eu/

EMPOWER

The EMPOWER concept aims to encourage and enable the active participation of citizens that consume and produce energy in the electrical system. It is based on the insight that a significant reduction of greenhouse gas emissions and an increase of energy efficiency require radical changes in the way we produce and consume energy.

http://empowerh2020.eu/

Flex4Grid

Flex4Grid aims at creating an open data and service framework that enables a novel concept of prosumer flexibility management, i.e. managing flexibility of prosumer demand and generation for the benefit for all key stakeholders: Cloud service providers will be able to offer new services to Distribution System Operators (DSOs) and prosumers; DSOs benefit from external services, peak load reduction and generation‐demand gap reduction; prosumers benefit by becoming an active market player for both, demand and generation; new market players will be able to offer services based on the third party data interface.

https://www.flex4grid.eu

FLEXICIENCY

The FLEXICIENCY project aims to demonstrate that the deployment of novel services in the electricity retail markets, such as advanced monitoring, local energy control and flexibility, can be accelerated thanks to an open European market place for  standardised interactions among electricity stakeholders within and across borders. This will open up the energy market to new players at EU level.

Website under maintenance

FutureFlow

FutureFlow links interconnected control areas of four transmission system operators of Central-South Europe which today do face increasing challenges to ensure transmission system security: the growing share of renewable electricity units has reduced drastically the capabilities of conventional, fossil-fuel based means to ensure balancing activities and congestion relief through redispatching. Research and innovation activities are proposed to validate that consumers and distributed generators can be put in a position to provide balancing and redispatching services, within an attractive business environment.

http://www.futureflow.eu/

GOFLEX

GoFlex will innovate, integrate and demonstrate smart-grid technologies, enabling the cost effective use of demand response in distribution grids: increasing the grids available adaptation capacity, safely supporting an increasing share of renewable electricity generation, improving observability and manageability of distribution grid for use of demand response and supporting localized concentration of prosumers DR for DSO to prevent congestion and energy imbalance.

http://www.goflex-community.eu/

InteGrid

InteGrid aims at demonstrating how DSOs enable the different stakeholders to actively participate in the energy market and to develop and implement new business models, making use of new data management and consumer involvement approaches. This project looks for demonstrating scalable and replicable solutions in an integrated environment that enable DSOs to plan and operate the network with a high share of DRES in a stable, secure and economic way, using flexibility inherently offered by specific technologies and by interaction with different stakeholders.

https://integrid-h2020.eu

InteGRIDy

inteGRIDy aims to integrate cutting-edge technologies, solutions and mechanisms in a scalable Cross-Functional Platform (CMP) of replicable solutions to connect existing energy networks with diverse stakeholders with enhanced observability of both generation and consumption profiles which will facilitate the optimal and dynamic operation of the Distribution Grid, fostering the stability of the electricity grid and coordination of Distributed Energy Resources (DERs), Virtual Power Plants (VPPs) and innovative collaborative Storage schemes within a continuously increased share of Renewable Energy (RES).

http://www.integridy.eu/

InterFlex

The InterFlex project brings together 5 European distribution system operators to improve the performance and the reliability of a local electric system by testing new uses of local flexibilities and new solutions of system automation. This project aims at improving on the performances of electricity networks since they have a central role to address the increasing complexity of the electricity system, while remaining the starting point for progressing towards an energy system approach because of its potential connections with heat, transport, gas, etc.

https://interflex-h2020.com/

INVADE

Smart system of renewable energy storage based on INtegrated EVs and bAtteries to empower mobile, Distributed and centralised Energy storage in the distribution grid.

Outcome: A cloud -based flexibility management system integrated with EVs and battery storages at mobile, distributed and centralized levels.

Impact: Utilize renewable energy more effectively, optimizing the supply of electricity and making services more end-user-centric.

This project targets to improve congestion management in the European power grid, avoid expensive investments in grid capacity and lower European consumer energy bills.

https://h2020invade.eu/

MIGRATE

MIGRATE stands for Massive InteGRATion of power Electronic devices. The aim of MIGRATE is to find solutions for the technological challenges the grid is currently and especially in future faced with, in particular with the increasing share of renewable energy which is integrated into the grid. The project will try to develop new approaches, paving the way for the implementation of power electronic devices in large scale. European TSOs, manufactures and universities/research centers have joined the consortium in order to investigate such challenges. MIGRATE’s aim is to provide requirements for future measures, methods and tools for a secure operation of the upcoming converter dominated power system in order to avoid potential coming blackouts.

https://www.h2020-migrate.eu/

NAIADES

The NAIADES project aims to develop and demonstrate the ambient Na-ion battery under realistic conditions as an effective alternative to the Li-ion battery for stationary Electric Energy Storage (EES) application. The overall purpose of this project is to develop a battery technology based on the sodium ion technology for sustainable EES that would bring a radical decrease in cost with respect to the lithium ion technology while ensuring sustainability and performance in terms of safety, cycle life, and energy density. 
The project’s website is expected to become, not only the central point of information about the NAIADES project, but about any project related to the Na-ion technology in the world.

http://www.naiades.eu/

NETfficient

NETfficient project improves the penetration of renewable energy through the use of ICT tools storage and high technology, as well as individual prosumers or as energy service providers to the network.

Five use cases will be developed in real live scenario in the island of Borkum (low and medium voltage), aiming to have a high impact in the storage market through replication of the use cases. This replication will be driven by efficient dissemination and exploitation activities and their demonstrated business models.

netfficient-project.eu

NOBEL GRID

NOBEL GRID will offer innovative solutions for all the actors of the Smart grid, in order to create more secure and stable Smart Grids and cleaner and affordable energy. In addition, to make possible an efficient implementation of these solutions, the project will work on the analysis of new business models, as well as improvements in legislation and regulation in the field of the Smart Grids.

With a budget of 13.9 million euros and 21 partners led by the Spanish group ETRA, the project results will be demonstrated in real conditions in five electric cooperatives and public organizations in five different European countries, such Spain, UK, Italy, Belgium and Greece, involving all the actors of the electricity distribution network, such as DSOs, Prosumers, aggregators, ESCOs and retailers.

nobelgrid.eu

P2P-SmarTest

P2P-SmartTest project investigates and demonstrates a smarter electricity distribution system integrated with advanced ICT, regional markets and innovative business models. It will employ Peer-to-Peer (P2P) approaches to ensure the integration of demand side flexibility and the optimum operation of DER and other resources within the network while maintaining second-to-second power balance and the quality and security of the supply. The results will be integrated to demonstration and validation environment to provide real-life results of distributed energy system designs.

http://www.p2psmartest-h2020.eu/

PROMOTioN

The project ‘PROgress on Meshed HVDC Offshore Transmission Networks’ (PROMOTioN) applied in 2015 for funding under the EU Horizon 2020 (H2020) programme call ‘Competitive Low-Carbon Energy’ 5 (LCE 5). Within the framework of modernisation of the European electricity grid, this call focused on advancing innovation and technologies relevant to the deployment of meshed offshore grids. Its specific objective is to pursue an agreement between network operators and major equipment suppliers regarding a technical architecture and a set of multi-vendor interoperable technologies in order to accelerate HVDC grid development.

The main objective of PROMOTioN is the further development and demonstration of three key technologies: diode rectifier offshore converters, multi-vendor HVDC (high-voltage direct current) grid protection systems, and full power testing of HVDC circuit breakers. Complementary to this end, a regulatory and financial framework will be developed for the coordinated planning, construction and operation of integrated offshore infrastructures, including an offshore grid deployment plan (roadmap) for the future offshore grid system in Europe.

https://www.promotion-offshore.net/

RESERVE

We urgently need to find ways to stabilise energy systems with up to 100% RES (where inertia is often lost due to power converter mediated energy transfer) to generate “RESERVEs” so that society can relax in the knowledge that it has a stable and sustainable energy supply.

RESERVE will address this challenge by researching new energy system concepts, implemented as new system support services enabling distributed, multi-level control of the energy system using pan-European unified network connection codes. Near real-time control of the distributed energy network will be enabled by innovative 5G based ICT. Energy system use case scenarios supplied by energy providers will form the basis of energy system models. Performance characteristics of the new control mechanisms will be investigated through integration of energy simulations and live 5G communications. We will create a pan-European multi-site simulation test-bed, bringing together the best facilities in Europe.

http://www.re-serve.eu/

RealValue

RealValue project commenced in June 2015 and is a €15.5m European energy storage project funded by Horizon 2020, the largest Research and Innovation Programme in Europe (€12M funding from the EC). The duration of the Project is 36 months.

RealValue aims to demonstrate how local small-scale energy storage, optimised with advanced ICT, could bring benefits to market participants throughout EU. Smart Electric Thermal Storage (SETS) will be deployed in physical demonstration trials in 1250 homes in Germany, Latvia and Ireland but the analysis will also consider other storage technologies and energy vectors, including integration with district heating and micro-generation.

http://www.realvalueproject.com/

SENSIBLE

The overall objective of Project Sensible is to develop, demonstrate and evaluate a storage-enabled sustainable energy supply for buildings and communities. The project will work towards achieving the 2030 target set by the European Union, namely to reduce green house gas emissions by 40% and create a sustainable energy supply.

A wide range of partners will work together to demonstrate that EU 2030 targets can be met on a local level, through intelligent integration of existing small-scale technologies with local power system grids.

http://www.h2020-project-sensible.eu/

SmarterEMC2

SmarterEMC2 implements ICT tools that support the integration of consumers through Demand Response services and the integration of DG/RES through Virtual Power Plants. These tools take into account the Smart Grids Architecture Model (SGAM) as well as the future structure of the Distribution Network, as described by the relevant EU bodies and organizations. The project explores whether the existing telecommunication infrastructure is sufficient to support in mass scale the emerging business models and Smart Grid services. Also, the project supports standardization activities by proposing adaptation to data models of market-oriented and field-level standards. SmarterEMC2 the project includes 3 real-world pilots and 3 large-scale lab simulations. The pilots will demonstrate the impact of DR and VPP services in real world settings, while the simulations will reveal the ability of the communication networks to support massive uptake of novel SG services.

www.smarteremc2.eu

SmartNet

The SmartNet project arises from the need to find answers and propose new practical solutions to the increasing integration of Renewable Energy Sources in the existing electricity transmission network. The subsequent technological (r)evolution is not only affecting the structure of the electricity markets, but also the interactions between TSOs and DSOs.

The SmartNet project aims to provide optimised instruments and modalities to improve the coordination between the grid operators at national and local level (respectively the TSOs and DSOs) and the exchange of information for monitoring and for the acquisition of ancillary services (reserve and balancing, voltage balancing control, congestion management) from subjects located in the distribution segment (flexible load and distributed generation).

http://smartnet-project.eu/

STORE&GO

Storing large amounts of electric energy from renewable energy sources will enable countries to deal with long periods without sufficient sun and wind available, as e.g. during a dull November. A process called Power-to-Gas (PtG) allows for storing the surplus of renewable energies on sunny or windy days by the creation of synthetic natural gas. The project STORE&GO focuses on the integration of PtG into the daily operation of European energy grids to investigate the maturity level of the technology. Three different demonstration sites offer highly diverse testing grounds for PtG. Moreover, three different innovative methanation processes will be developed and improved to a high Technology Readiness Level.

http://www.storeandgo.info/

STORY

STORY wants to demonstrate and evaluate innovative approaches for energy storage systems. The challenge is to find solutions, which are affordable, secure and ensure an increased percentage of self-supply. The project consists of eight different demonstration cases each with different local / small-scale storage concepts and technologies, covering industrial and residential environments. These demonstrations feed into a large-scale impact assessment, with the central question being:

“What could be the added value of storage in the distribution grid?”

horizon2020-story.eu

TILOS

TILOS (Technology Innovation for the Local Scale Optimum Integration of Battery Energy Storage) aims to demonstrate the optimal integration of local scale energy storage in a fully-operated, smart island microgrid on Tilos island, Greece, that will also communicate with a main electricity grid. The main objective of the project will be the development and operation of a prototype battery storage system, based on NaNiCl2 batteries, provided with an optimum, real-environment smart grid control system and coping with the challenge of supporting multiple tasks, ranging from microgrid energy management, maximization of RES penetration and grid stability, to export of guaranteed energy amounts and provision of ancillary services to the main grid.

http://www.tiloshorizon.eu/

UPGRID

The UPGRID project started in the beginning of 2015 under the H2020 program and is being developed by a European consortium, composed of 19 partners from 7 European countries: Spain, Portugal, Poland, Sweden, United Kingdom, France and Norway.

The project includes 4 demonstrators that are being deployed from April 2015 to June 2017 at Bilbao area in the North of Spain, Parque das Nações in Lisbon (Portugal), Åmål in Dalsland in the South of Sweden, and Gdynia in Pomeranian Region (Poland).

http://upgrid.eu/

WiseGRID

WiseGRID (Wide scale demonstration of Integrated Solutions and business models for European smartGRID) will provide a set of solutions and technologies to increase the smartness, stability and security of an open, consumer-centric European energy grid. The project will combine an enhanced use of storage technologies, a highly increased share of RES and the integration of charging infrastructure to favour the large-scale deployment of electric vehicles.

http://www.wisegrid.eu/